A Guide For Creditors Dealing with Insolvent Companies in Singapore

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A Guide For Creditors Dealing with Insolvent Companies in Singapore


Dealing with an insolvent company can be a challenging experience, especially for creditors, including Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Singapore. When a company you've extended credit to faces insolvency, understanding the appropriate steps to take is crucial for safeguarding your interests and maximizing the chances of debt recovery. In this comprehensive guide, we'll walk you through the essential strategies and considerations for company insolvency in Singapore.

Recognizing Insolvency

Understanding the early signs of insolvency is the first step in dealing with an insolvent company. These signs include:

  • Cash Flow Issues: Insolvent companies often struggle to maintain consistent cash flow, leading to late or missed payments.
  • Unpaid Debts: The accumulation of unpaid debts can be a clear indicator of financial distress.
  • Inability to Meet Obligations: An insolvent company may fail to fulfill its financial obligations, including contractual commitments.

Before proceeding, it's essential to conduct thorough due diligence to confirm the company's insolvency status.

Negotiation and Communication

Statutory Demands

Statutory demands are a powerful tool in dealing with insolvency. A statutory demand is a formal demand for payment of a debt owed by a company.

  • When to Use: Understand when and how to issue a statutory demand.
  • Consequences: Be aware of the severe consequences that may result if the demand is ignored.

Filing a Winding-Up Petition

In some cases, creditors may need to take more assertive measures.

You can file for dissolution (winding up) to discharge your debts. You can do this by submitting a winding up application by:

In order to initiate a compulsory winding up, it is necessary to be a creditor of the company, including contingent or prospective creditors. Additionally, it must be determined that the company is unable to fulfill its debts.

There are 3 ways to prove a company’s insolvency:

1. The company did not make a payment of a specific amount over $10,000 within three weeks of receiving a statutory demand for payment at the company's registered address.

2. Execution of a judgment in favour of you has yet to be paid; or

3. The company is unable to fulfill its financial obligations immediately, indicating a deficit in liabilities compared to its assets.

Proof of Debt: What is it for?

All claims in liquidation can be proved against the insolvent company. If your claim cannot be substantiated, you will not receive payment.

Once the company goes into liquidation, the liquidator will write to you and announce the liquidation. You must submit proof of debt within 3 months of the winding up order. Provable are current debts at the date of liquidation, future debts (debts that will definitely come due in the future) or contingent debts (existing legal obligations arising from events that may or may not occur), or interest up to the date of liquidation.

The insolvency representative then reviews and makes a decision on all evidence of the debt received and may accept the evidence, reject the evidence or require further evidence.

If your claim is denied, you can appeal to the courts. If further evidence is required and you fail to provide it to the satisfaction of the bankruptcy trustee, this may result in your claim being denied or reduced. Read more in details here.

Read also: Comprehensive Guide To Different Debt Types: Good Vs Bad Debts

Attending Creditors' Meetings

Participating in creditors' meetings is not just a formality but a vital aspect of safeguarding your interests as a creditor. These meetings serve as critical forums where decisions impacting the insolvency proceedings are made. Let's delve deeper into what you should know:

Understanding your role is paramount. As a creditor, your presence at these meetings signifies your stake in the process. You have the right to voice your concerns, ask questions, and make informed decisions that can influence the outcome. Typically, creditors are categorized into different classes based on the nature of their claims, and your role may vary accordingly.

For instance, secured creditors, those with collateral, often have more significant influence as they may be in a better position to recover their debts. Unsecured creditors may have less influence but still play a crucial role in the decision-making process.


Familiarize yourself with the voting process, as it is a potent tool in creditors' meetings. Your voting rights enable you to have a say in key matters such as the approval of a proposed repayment plan or the appointment of a liquidator. It's essential to understand the implications of your vote, as it can significantly impact the direction of the insolvency proceedings.

Your voting power is typically proportional to the size of your debt claim. The larger your claim, the more influence you hold in the decision-making process. This emphasizes the importance of filing a valid proof of debt to accurately represent your claim's size.

Staying informed is crucial throughout the insolvency proceedings. Creditors' meetings provide a platform where you can receive updates on the latest developments in the case. These updates may include the financial status of the insolvent company, proposed repayment plans, and any potential legal actions.

Being well-informed empowers you to make informed decisions about your debt recovery strategy. It also allows you to assess the feasibility of proposed plans and take appropriate actions to protect your interests.

A liquidator may be appointed in various ways, depending on the specific type of company winding up being conducted.

In cases of involuntary winding up, either a licensed insolvency practitioner or the Official Receiver, a public officer, will be appointed by the court to supervise the liquidation process of the company.

In a creditors' voluntary winding up, creditors have the option to select the liquidator they prefer. In a members' voluntary winding up, shareholders can appoint a liquidator during a general meeting.

In cases where the liquidator is privately appointed, such as in a creditors' voluntary winding up or a members' voluntary winding up, the Official Receiver will oversee and ensure that the private liquidator is adhering to Singapore's insolvency laws.

Distribution of Assets

Understanding how assets are distributed during insolvency is fundamental to maximizing your chances of recovering your share. Let's break down this critical aspect:

1. Priority Payments: In insolvency proceedings, not all creditors are treated equally. Certain creditors are given priority when it comes to repayment. These priority payments typically include administrative expenses incurred during the insolvency process, such as legal and court fees, as well as employee wages and salaries accrued during the insolvency period.

Secured creditors, who have collateral to back their claims, often come next in line. They are entitled to recover their debts from the sale of the specific assets used as collateral. Only after these priority and secured debts are settled do unsecured creditors, like many SMEs, have a chance to receive repayment.

2. Asset Distribution: Understanding how assets are distributed among creditors is vital. In many cases, the insolvent company's assets may not be sufficient to cover all debts fully. This means that creditors may only receive a fraction of what they are owed.

Asset distribution is overseen by a liquidator or trustee appointed by the court. The liquidator's role is to sell the company's assets and distribute the proceeds according to the hierarchy of payments. As an unsecured creditor, you may need to prepare for the possibility of receiving less than the full amount of your debt.

3. Recovery Strategies: Given the potential for receiving less than the full amount owed, it's essential to explore recovery strategies. These strategies may include negotiating with the liquidator, considering alternative dispute resolution methods, or even pursuing legal action against individuals or entities responsible for the company's insolvency.

Being proactive in exploring these strategies can help you maximize your recovery and mitigate potential losses.

Here's a table summarizing the key steps:

Recognizing Insolvency
Identify signs of insolvency: cash flow issues, unpaid debts, inability to meet obligations. Verify insolvency status through due diligence.
Negotiation and Communication
Open communication with the insolvent company, explore repayment options, consider alternative dispute resolution, and maintain records.
Statutory Demands
Understand the use and consequences of statutory demands as a formal demand for payment.
Filing a Winding-Up Petition
Assess when to file a winding-up petition, grasp the process, and comprehend its impact on the insolvent company.
Proof of Debt
Gather necessary documentation and adhere to timelines for filing a proof of debt.
Attending Creditors' Meetings
Participate in meetings to stay informed, exercise voting rights, and receive updates on insolvency proceedings.
Distribution of Assets
Learn about the priority of payments to creditors, asset distribution, and strategies for recovering your share.

Post-Insolvency Proceedings

Addressing post-insolvency matters is a critical phase for creditors. It involves navigating the aftermath of insolvency to protect your interests and potentially recover your outstanding debts. Here's a closer look at the key aspects of post-insolvency proceedings:

To address remaining debts effectively:

  • Review All Obligations: Conduct a thorough review of all outstanding debts and obligations related to the insolvent company. This includes examining contracts, invoices, and any communication that may reveal additional debts.

  • Prioritize and Assess: Prioritize these debts based on their urgency and importance. Determine if any of these obligations need immediate attention or negotiation.

  • Negotiate if Possible: If you identify debts that are negotiable, consider engaging in discussions with the relevant parties to reach a settlement or repayment agreement. Negotiating can often result in more favorable outcomes compared to legal action.

  • Legal Consultation: If necessary, seek legal counsel to help you navigate the complexities of these remaining debts. Legal professionals can provide guidance on your rights and obligations and advise on the best course of action.

Debt Recovery:

Effective debt recovery strategies are crucial in post-insolvency proceedings. These strategies aim to maximize your chances of recovering the outstanding debts owed to you. Here's how you can implement effective debt recovery strategies:

  • Evaluate Recoverability: Assess the feasibility of recovering your debts. Consider factors such as the available assets of the insolvent company, the hierarchy of payments, and any security interests you may hold.

  • Negotiation: Continue to explore negotiation as a means of debt recovery. This can involve discussions with the liquidator or any parties responsible for repaying the debts.

  • Alternative Dispute Resolution: If negotiation does not yield results, consider alternative dispute resolution methods like mediation or arbitration. These can provide a more expedited and cost-effective way to resolve disputes.

  • Legal Action: If all else fails, be prepared to take legal action. This may involve filing a lawsuit against the insolvent company or individuals responsible for the debt. Legal proceedings can be complex and costly, so it's essential to weigh the potential benefits against the expenses and time involved.

Legal Action:

Taking legal action is often the last resort in post-insolvency proceedings, but it may become necessary to protect your rights and recover debts. Here's what you need to know:

  • Legal Counsel: Engage a qualified attorney with expertise in insolvency and debt recovery. They can assess the viability of legal action and guide you through the process.

  • Lawsuit Filing: If pursuing legal action is deemed necessary, your attorney will initiate the lawsuit on your behalf. This involves filing the necessary legal documents and complying with court procedures.

  • Court Proceedings: Prepare for court proceedings, which can include hearings, discovery, and presenting evidence. Legal proceedings can be lengthy and costly, so it's crucial to be patient and prepared for the duration of the case.

  • Enforcement: If you obtain a judgment in your favor, the next step is to enforce it. This may involve seizing assets or using other legal means to collect the debt.


In the intricate realm of insolvency, creditors, particularly SMEs in Singapore, can protect their interests by following these essential steps. Seeking legal advice when necessary, acting promptly, and asserting your rights as a creditor are paramount. Understanding the insolvency process is indispensable for making informed decisions and securing your financial interests in Singapore's business landscape.

Frequently Asked Questions

Can I expect to recover my full debt from an insolvent company in Singapore?

The likelihood of full debt recovery varies depending on factors like your creditor status and available assets. In many cases, creditors may not receive the entire amount owed.

What are the costs associated with pursuing insolvency proceedings in Singapore?

Costs can vary, encompassing legal fees, court expenses, and related outlays. These costs may be recoverable from the insolvent company's assets if the proceedings are successful.

Is negotiation with the insolvent company a preferable option?

Negotiation can offer a cost-effective and expedited solution, potentially preserving valuable business relationships. However, it may not guarantee full debt recovery.

How long does the insolvency process typically take in Singapore?

The duration of insolvency proceedings can vary significantly, ranging from several months to over a year. The complexity of the case and court schedules are key determinants.

What happens if I don't attend creditors' meetings during insolvency proceedings?

Attending creditors' meetings is advisable as it keeps you informed about proceedings and grants you the opportunity to vote on critical matters. Non-attendance may limit your involvement in the process.

Read also: Comprehensive Guide To Benefits and Drawbacks of Early Mortgage Payoff In Singapore
Read also: Can Directors be Liable for Company Debts in Singapore?
Read also: Who's Liable For Your Debt After You Pass On?


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UPDATED AS OF 30 May 2024
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